Future Problem Solving of Virginia
Glossary H - Z

H


Host Bid - a bid extended to state bowl host school.

The selection of the host bid is based on booklet quality after the district’s bid allocation is filled.

••••LINK:

Bid





Humaneness (of the action plan) - the evaluation scale that measures the "productive, positive potential" of the action plan.

The scale for humaneness ranges from 1-5 points.

NOTE: Future Problem Solving of Virginia (as opposed to the international program) does not permit inhumane solutions. All such entries are automatically eliminated from consideration for fluency and flexibility and receive lower scores on the overall humaneness scale.


••••LINKS:

Action Plan

Fluency

Overall Scale



I


Impact (of the Action Plan) - the evaluation scale that measures the action plan's positive effect on the future scene.

The scale for impact ranges from 1-5 points.

••••LINK:

Future Scene





Individual Competition (GIPS and CmPS) - a competition for Global Issues Problem Solving and Community Problem Solving participants who compete alone rather than on a team.

Individuals in the Global Issues Problem Solving program compete with an abbreviated booklet: eight challenges, one underlying problem, eight solutions, five criteria, grid, and action plan.

The winning Individual in GIPS and CmPS competition may be invited to represent Virginia at the international conference based on the quality of work as determined by the evaluation and state directors.

The winning Individual in GIPS and CmPS competition may be invited to represent Virginia at the international conference subject to selection by the state director.

••••LINKS:

Booklet

Community Problem Solving

Global Issues Problem Solving

International Conference

State Director





Insightful - a challenge that is judged to demonstrate deep understanding of the topic or future scene under consideration.

The concept of "insight" is used to determine whether or not a challenge can be awarded a three-point originality bonus. To receive the bonus, the item must be both rare and insightful in the opinion of the evaluator.

••••LINKS:

Originality Bonus

Challenge

Evaluator

Future Scene

Rare

Topic





International Conference (IC) - the final stage of the year-long Future Problem Solving Program in which the best competitors from around the world gather together for a variety of competitions.

Virginia's Global Issues Problem Solving representatives to the International Conference are selected at the state bowl.

Community Problem Solving and both scenario writing and scenario performance representatives to IC are selected earlier and announced at the state bowl.

The University hosting the International Conference changes from year to year.

••••LINKS:

Global Issues Problem Solving

Scenario Performance

Scenario Writing

State Bowl





Individual - A participant in the Global Issues Problem Solving or Community Problem Solving competition who competes alone rather than on a team.

Individuals compete with a reduced workload in Global Issues Problem Solving booklet-writing sessions: eight challenges, one underlying problem, eight solutions, five criteria, grid, and action plan.

••••LINKS:

Booklet

Community Problem Solving

Global Issues Problem Solving


J


Junior Division - the competitive division of Future Problem Solving for participants in grades 4-6.

••••LINK:

Grade Level Division


K


Key Tips - an instructional and reference document produced by Future Problem Solving International to provide coaches and FPSers with essential information on each step of the FPS process.

The Key Tips review each step and contain helpful examples of both inferior and exemplary work by FPSers. It provides the key tips for Global Issues Problem Solving as well as for Community Problem Solving, Scenario Writing, and Scenario Performance.

FPSPI Coaches may purchase key tips documents for $35 from FPSPI.

••••LINKS:

Community Problem Solving

Future Problem Solving Program International

Global Issues Problem Solving

Scenario Performance

Scenario Writing





Key Verb - the first word of a key verb phrase which specifies what action is to be taken to solve the underlying problem.

The KVP should be flexible, with no absolute verbs such as "stop" or "solve."

Participants should avoid generic verbs such a "educate" or “persuade."

••••LINKS:

Key Verb Phrase

Underlying Problem





Key Verb Phrase (KVP) - the action component of the underlying problem which states what is to be accomplish.

The KVP should be singular, containing only one task. It follows the stem the stem ("How might we" or "In what ways might we”) in the booklet.

The scale for inclusion of the key verb phrase ranges from 0-3 points. The quality of the key verb phrase is evaluated in the focus and adequacy sections of the scoresheet.

••••LINKS:

Key Verb

Stem

Underlying Problem

 

 

 

M


Middle Division
- the competitive division of Future Problem Solving for participants in grades 7-9.

••••LINK:

Grade Level Division






Modified Criteria - criteria with adequate detail to place it firmly within the identified underlying problem and/or the future scene of the topic under investigation.

Modified criteria are scored under the applicability and relevance section of the Global Issues Problem Solving scoresheet.

Modified criteria fall between generic criteria and advanced criteria and are scored accordingly (2 points per criterion).

••••LINKS:

Advanced Criteria

Applicability and Relevance

Criteria

Future Scene

Generic Criteria

Global Issues Problem Solving

Underlying Problem





Mover & Shaker - the annual award to an individual who has made a significant contribution to Future Problem Solving in Virginia.

The Executive Board of VAFPS selects the Mover & Shaker.

The Mover & Shaker award is unique to the Virginia FPS program.

This is the list of Movers & Shakers since the program began:

1992 Kathleen Ripley
1993 Vickram Chiruvolu
1994 Susan Cowardin
1995 Ernestine Baise
1996 Peggy Raup
1997 Sue Sherry
1998 George Schauer
1999 Matthew Baise
2000 Carolyn Stamm
2001 Judy Hornbeck
2002 Robert Corvin
2003 Sandy Horton
2004 Cheryl McCullough
2005 Neil Stamm
2006 Joanne Stanley & Barbara Havens
2007 Patty Rabil
2008 Fred Lampazzi
2009 David Dorsey
2010 Annabel Brown
2011 Andy Tate
2012 Jenny Christman
2013 Margaret Carpenter
2014 Teri Zurfluh
2015 Farimae Tate
2016 Dr. Ian Hagemann
2017 Daniel Sun
2018 Dan Baise


••••LINKS:

Executive Board

Future Problem Solving of Virginia


O

 

Originality Bonus - the three-point bonus awarded to challenges and solution ideas that are considered exceptionally outstanding in the context of problem solving.

Originality bonuses for challenges are awarded for rare and insightful entries while originality bonuses for solution ideas are awarded for rare and creative ideas. Items cannot be considered rare if the same idea appears in any other booklet scored by the same evaluator within the same set of booklets.

To receive the bonus, the item must be both rare and insightful in step one challenges or rare and creative in step three solution ideas.

Awarding of originality bonuses rests solely on the judgement of the evaluator.

The three-points awarded for each original idea are added to other credits and included in the total earned in the step.

••••LINKS:

Challenges

Creative

Evaluator

Insightful

Rare

Solution Ideas





Overall Scoring Scales - the section of the scoresheet that measures performance throughout the booklet rather than item by item.

There are three overall scales: research applied, creative strength, and futuristic thinking.

••••LINKS:

Creative Strength

Futuristic Thinking

Research Applied

Scoresheet


P


Parameters - (see Future Scene Parameters)

 

 

 

Perhaps (P) for challenges - the evaluation rating given for a challenge when its meaning is considered ambiguous or more information is needed to connect the idea to the key verb phrase and purpose.

Challenges scored with a “P” for perhaps do not receive points for fluency, elaboration, or flexibility and are ineligible for an originality bonus.

••••LINKS:

Challenge

Elaboration

Flexibility

Fluency

Originality Bonus

Underlying Problem





Perhaps (P) for Solution Ideas - the evaluation rating of a solution idea judged to answer the key verb phrase, support the purpose, and demonstrate a clear or easily inferred connection to the purpose.

A solution idea must be considered relevant to receive points on the step 3 fluency scale.

A solution idea which does not receive a (R) cannot receive points for fluency, elaboration, flexibility or be considered for an originality bonus.

••••LINKS:

Elaboration

Key Verb Phrase

Originality Bonus

Purpose

Solution Idea





Postmark Deadline - the date by which competitive entries or registrations must be mailed to the state office.

Late entries are subject to disqualification, penalties, or fines.

Postmark dates are printed on competition cover sheets and on the program calendar available at vafps.org.

••••LINKS:

Calendar

Cover sheets

Registration

vafps.org





Power Strategies - Future Problem Solving techniques that successful Virginia coaches have identified as especially helpful.

Power strategies are listed on each of the six-step fact sheets available on the resources page of vafps.org.

••••LINKS:

Fact Sheet

Resource Page





Practice Problem 1 - the first Global Issues Problem Solving booklet writing session in the year-long Future Problem Solving calendar.

Practice problem 1 entries require only 8 challenges, an underlying problem, 8 challenges, 3 criteria, an evaluation grid, and an action plan, which is a reduced workload from booklet that follow.

Both practice problems, as the name suggests, are designed to strengthen problem solving skills and do not count toward state bowl bids. However, teams and Individuals receive complete feedback about their efforts from a state evaluator.

Practice Problem 1 and 2 booklets are ranked according to their relative scores in a set of booklets. The results are posted as first place (gold), second place (silver) and third place (bronze) in the “Ranks of Royalty” on the vafps.org website.

Coaches may, at their discretion, suspend rules for practice problems. They may exceed time limits, provide assistance, allow more than four students to participate, and complete the booklet over multiple sessions.

••••LINKS:

Booklet

Coach

Evaluator

Global Issues Problem Solving

Practice Problem 2

Ranks of Royalty





Practice Problem 2 - the second entry in the year-long Global Issues Problem Solving competition.

Practice problem 2 is designed to provide participants with feedback to help prepare them for the qualifying problem. Evaluation of the second practice problem does not count in determination of state bowl bids. However, teams and Individuals receive complete feedback about their efforts from a state evaluator.

Practice Problem 1 and 2 booklets are ranked according the their relative scores in a set of an evaluator's booklets. The results are posted as first place (gold), second place (silver) and third place (bronze) in the “Ranks of Royalty” on the vafps.org website.

Coaches may, at their discretion, suspend rules for practice problems. They may exceed time limits, provide assistance, allow more than four students to participate, and complete the booklet over multiple sessions.

••••LINKS:

Booklet

Coach

Evaluator

Global Issues Problem Solving

Practice Problem 1

Qualifying Problem

Ranks of Royalty





Presentation of the Action Plan - a state bowl competition in which teams present their action plans with a brief skit.

Presentation of action plan scores do not impact state bowl booklet scores. However, each team must stage a presentation in order to qualify to receive an award in the booklet-writing competition.

Participation in the presentation of the action plan competition is restricted to individuals or team members who contributed to the writing of a GIPS booklet at the state bowl or registered CmPS, Scenario Writing and Scenario Performance finalists.

Up to seven students may participate in the presentation, but all must have competed in the same grade level division (or lower division) and hail from the same school district.

Senior division participants stage their presentation on Friday night and serve as evaluators of Junior and Middle division teams on Saturday.

Junior and Middle teams are evaluated in two rounds.

Each presentation may last no longer than four minutes.

Each presentation begins with a team member reading the team's underlying problem and a brief summary of its action plan.

Prop lists are distribute on Friday night at the state bowl. The actual props are distribute on Saturday morning.

Coaches and spectators may record team presentations. However, no participant or coach may post presentation videos in part or whole on social media or websites within three years of the competition and not without the express permission of the state director of Future Problem Solving of Virginia.

••••LINKS:

Community Problem Solving

Grade Level Division

Scenario Writing

Junior Division

Middle Division

Scenario Presentation

Scenario Writing

Senior Division

State Bowl

Underlying Problem





Purpose of the Underlying Problem - the component of the underlying problem that explains why the team or FPSer competing as an individual has chosen to tackle the task specified in the key verb phrase.

Omission of the purpose in the underlying problem is a serious error that affects evaluation scales throughout the scoresheet and can eliminate a booklet from consideration as a finalist at the state bowl.

The presence and quality of the purpose in relation to the key verb phrase is measured in the underlying problem section of the scoresheet.

The scale for inclusion of a purpose ranges from 0-3 points, but is also evaluated elsewhere on the scoresheet.

••••LINKS:

Scoresheet

Underlying Problem


Q


Qualifying Problem - the booklet-writing competition that determines bids for the state bowl.

Although the qualifying problem is conducted locally, participants must follow state bowl rules of the competition to the letter.

••••LINKS:

Bids

Qualifying Problem

Rules of the Competition

State Bowl





Quick Reference Guide - a study guide and training aid which provides essential information about each step in the Future Problem Solving process.

The quick reference guide was developed by Future Problem Solving of Virginia and can be downloaded from the resources section of vafps.org.

An expanded version of the guide, providing additional details in separate documents for each step, is also available online. (see fact sheets)

••••LINKS:

Fact Sheet

Future Problem Solving of Virginia

vafps.org


R


Rank/Rankings - the relative position of a team or participant competing as an individual within a particular set of booklets. Rank is determined by comparing raw scores.

Ranking determines which teams or Individuals advance to a higher level in the Olympic-style competition.

••••LINKS:


Raw Score





Ranks of Royalty - the list of top performers on practice problems.

The top ranked teams and Individuals competing as Individuals from each evaluator's set of booklets is recognized as gold. The second is ranked as silver and third as bronze. The Ranks of Royalty are posted on the program's website (vafps.org) after the ranks are determined for each problem.

The Ranks of Royalty are unofficial and inconclusive since the rules for practice problems can be suspended.

••••LINKS:


Practice Problem 1

Practice Problem 2

vafps.org





Rare - a challenge or solution that does not appear in any other booklet within the set that a particular evaluator is reviewing.

The concept of "rare" is used to determine whether or not a challenge or solution can be awarded a three-point originality bonus. To receive the bonus, the item must be both rare and insightful (challenge) or rare and creative (solution ideas) in the judgement of the evaluator.

••••LINKS:

Challenge

Creative

Evaluator

Insightful

Rare

Solution Idea





Raw Score - the total number of points a team or participant competing as an individual receives on a round of booklet writing. Raw scores are used to tabulate team rankings.

Although raw scores are tabulated, they are only important as they relate to other scores in a particular set of booklets. Raw scores should not be used to compare booklet quality examined by different evaluators. It is ultimately the ranking that determine which teams and Individuals advance.

••••LINK:

Rank/Rankings





Registration - enrollment in a workshop or competition offered by Future Problem Solving of Virginia.

All FPS competitions in Virginia must be registered online at vafps.org.

Each registration is subject to a deadline posted on the website.


••••LINKS:

Deadline

vafps.org

Workshop





Relevant (R) - the evaluation rating of a solution idea judged to answer the key verb phrase, support the purpose, and demonstrate a clear or easily inferred connection to the purpose.

A solution idea must receive a yes score to be factored into the formula for assigning points to the solution idea fluency scale.

A solution idea which does not receive a (R) cannot receive points on elaboration or be considered for an originality bonus.

••••LINKS:

Elaboration

Key Verb Phrase

Originality Bonus

Purpose

Solution Idea





Relevance of the action plan - the evaluation scale that measures the action plan's relationship to the underlying problem.

The scale for relevance ranges from 1-5 points.

••••LINKS:

Action Plan

Underlying Problem





Relevance of connection of criteria to underlying problem - the evaluation scale that measures the quality of criteria in steps 4 and 5 of the Global Issues Problem Solving scoresheet.

Criteria can be measured with the following assessments:

Advanced (A) - 3 points
Modified (M) - 2 points
Generic (G) - 1 point
Duplicate (D) - 0
points
Not Relevant (NR) 0 points
The scale for relevance ranges from 0-3 points per criterion, for a total of 0-15 points.


••••LINKS:

Advanced

Duplicate

Criteria

Generic

Global Issues Problem Solving

Modified

Scoresheet

Underlying Problem





Research - the process of acquiring knowledge about the topic under study.

Research on the upcoming topic is the real first step of the Future Problem Solving process. It should be focused on future trends and projections since the future scene in every topic will be set approximately 30 years in the future.





Research Applied (in Overall Scale) - the evaluation scale that measures evidence of research and thorough knowledge of the topic throughout the booklet.

The research applied scale is recorded in the overall scoring section of the scoresheet and ranges from 1-10 points.

••••LINK:

Research





Resource Page - The webpage of vafps.org that provides helpful tips and guidance about the Future Problem Solving program.

The resource page provides information for both coaches and FPSers.

••••LINK:

Resource Webpage





Rules of the Competition - the regulations, policies, and procedures that govern all Future Problem Solving in Virginia competitions.

Rules are revised and published in August for the following year's competition.

••••LINK:

Rules on the website



S

 

"Santa Claus" - an evaluator considered very generous and forgiving of minor mistakes. 

Booklets scored by "Santa Claus" evaluators generally receive higher scores than those examined by "Scrooges." This accounts for the Future Problem Solving Program's reliance on rank rather than raw score in determining the quality of booklets. Specifically, "Santa Clauses" are normally generous on all booklet in the set they evaluate, while "Scrooges" are normally tough.

••••LINKS:

Scrooge

Rank/Rankings

Raw Score





Scenario Performance (ScP) - the storytelling competition of Future Problem Solving.

Scenario Performance is about storytelling as opposed to story writing or scenario writing.

Individual students must choose one of the FPS annual topics as a basis for their ideas to create a story.

Stories may run between 4-5 minutes in duration and should be set at least 20 years in the future.

Submission should take the form of a video file of the student delivering an oral performance of his or her story, undertaken in one take without edits.

Virginia's program uses a video format, but the Scenario Performance competition at the International Conference is a live storytelling event with an audience.

Each participant competes in a grade level division established by Future Problem Solving (Junior 4-6, Middle 7-9, and Senior 10-12).

The first place winner from each division may be invited to the International Conference, subject to quality.

Katie Connor coordinates Scenario Performance in Virginia.

••••LINKS:

Grade Level Division

International Conference





Scenario Writing - the competitive program of Future Problem Solving that allows individual writers to create futuristic stories based on one of the five FPS topics.

Scenario Writing stories must range between 1,500 words or fewer.

Each participant competes in a grade level division established by Future Problem Solving (junior 4-6, middle 7-9, and senior 10-12).
Joanne Stanley coordinates Scenario Writing in Virginia.

••••LINKS:

Grade Level Division

Junior Division

Middle Division

Senior Division





Scholarship - the annual Future Problem Solving of Virginia college scholarship awarded to the a graduating high school senior who currently participates on a Future Problem Solving and/or Community Problem Solving team or has submitted an entry in the current year’s Scenario Writing or Scenario Performance competition.

Applicants must submit a 300 to 500 word essay responding to a specific situation.

The applicant is responsible for collecting the two recommendations and submitting a complete package containing an application, essay, coach recommendation, and teacher endorsement.

The teacher recommendation may come from any teacher familiar with the applicant’s academic performance but the endorsement from the coach must come from the applicant’s current Future Problem Solving coach.

The scholarship is paid directly to the winning applicant for use at the institution of higher learning of their choice.






Scoresheet - the official evaluation instrument for Global Issues Problem Solving booklets.





Scoring Guidelines - the information on the scoresheet that specifies how the evaluation was made. It also serves as a quick check for evaluators.

••••LINKS:

Evaluation Scale

Scoresheet





"Scrooge" - an evaluator considered very demanding.

Booklets scored by "scrooges" generally receive lower scores than those examined by "Santa Claus" evaluators. This accounts for the Future Problem Solving Program's reliance on rank rather than raw score in determining the quality of booklets. Specifically, a "Scrooge" is normally tough on all booklet in the set they evaluate, while a "Santa Claus" is normally generous and forgiving of minor mistakes in the booklets they evaluate.

••••LINKS:

Evaluator

Santa Claus





Senior Division - the competitive division of Future Problem Solving for participants in grades 10-12.

••••LINK:


Grade Level Division

 

 

Solution Ideas - the third step in the in the six-step Future Problem Solving process that requires participants to generate ideas that address their underlying problem and support their self-identified purpose.

Teams may submit up to 16 solutions for each problem solving round, with the exception of practice problem 1 which calls for 8 solutions.

Participants competing as Individuals may submit only up to 8 solutions for each problem.

There are three components of a completely written solution:
• who will carry out the solution
• the solution itself
• why the idea will successfully "solve" the underlying problem.

Solutions are evaluated on three scales:
• fluency - answers the key verb phrase and supports the purpose of the underlying problem (0-10 points)
• elaboration - the number of categories used (0-10 points)
• flexibility - any three of the who, what, how, or why componen
ts of each solution (0-10 points)

Participants can earn three extra originality bonus points for a solution that an evaluator considers rare and creative. Rare, in the future problem solving context, means that the solution does not appear in any other booklet within the set a particular evaluator is reviewing. To receive an originality bonus, the solution must be both rare and creative in the evaluators judgement.

••••LINKS:

Creative

Elaboration

Flexibility

Fluency

Individual

Originality Bonus

Rare

Underlying Problem





State Bowl - the final event of Future Problem Solving of Virginia's yearlong Olympic-style competition. The event takes place over two days each spring.

Teams and Individuals who win top honors in Global Issues Problem Solving at the state bowl become Virginia's representative to the International Conference.

Community Problem Solving, Scenario Writing, Scenario Performance, Wythe Awards, scholarship recipient and Mover & Shaker winners are announced at the State Bowl.

Community Problem Solvers set up displays of their entries during the booklet-writing sessions on Friday.

One competition that only occurs at the state bowl is the presentation of the action plan competition in which teams demonstrate their booklets' action plan with a four-minute skit.

The state bowl is held at various participating schools throughout the state.

••••LINKS:

Community Problem Solving

Future Problem Solving of Virginia

Global Issues Problem Solving

International Conference

Mover & Shaker

Presentation of the Action Plan

Scenario Presentation

Scenario Writing

Scholarship

Wythe Award





State Bowl Coordinator - the member of the Virginia Executive Board who organizes and supervises the state bowl.

Patti Rabil is the current state bowl coordinator.

••••LINK:

State Bowl





State Director - the executive in charge of Future Problem Solving in Virginia.

Patty Haskins in the current state director.

••••LINKS:

Executive Board





Stem - the opening introduction to the underlying problem.

FPSers may choose between "How might we" or "In what ways might we" as their stem.

The "we" in the stem should not be altered or specified. Solution ideas may originate from a variety of sources.

••••LINKS:

Solution Ideas

Underlying Problem





Steps - the formal stages of the Future Problem Solving process that follow a logical method for addressing and solving problems.

There are six steps in the FPS structure:

• Identify challenges related to the future scene
• Select an underlying problem
• Produce solution ideas to the underlying problem
• Generate and select criteria to evaluate solution ideas
• Evaluate solution ideas
• Develop an action plan

Steps proceed in order, alternating between divergent and convergent phases.

••••LINKS:

Action Plan

Challenges

Convergent Thinking

Criteria for Evaluation

Divergent Thinking

Evaluation Grid

Solution Ideas

Underlying Problem





Superlative - the expression of the highest possible degree of a criteria in the fourth step of a Future Problem Solving booklet.

Criteria questions must be stated as a superlative so that solutions may be compared.

Sample superlatives: best, highest, most. Not superlatives: good, high, many.

Superlatives can also be used in key verb phrases.


••••LINKS:

Criteria

Key Verb Phrases



T


Topic - the subject matter for competitive rounds of Future Problem Solving.

A different topic is designated for each problem stage (Practice Problem 1 & 2, Qualifying Problem, State Bowl, and International Conference).

Topics are selected by an online vote. Participants, coaches, parents, and other interested individuals are invited to take part in the selection process by choosing from a list of topic descriptions created by the Future Problem Solving Program International governing council.

Everyone may submit topical concepts for consideration.

Topics for 2018-19 are:


• practice problem 1 - Mission to Moon, Mars, and Beyond
• practice problem 2 - Drones
• qualifying problem - Food Loss & Waste
• state bowl - Coping with Stress


The international conference topic is announced in the spring prior to the competition.

All programs with the exception of Community Problem Solving use the year's designated topics.

••••LINKS:

Topic descriptions for 2018-19

Vote for future topics





E. Paul Torrance - the creator of the Future Problem Solving process.

Torrance (1915- 2003) was an American psychologist and leading researcher in the field of creativity who conducted the first FPS program for students in Athens, Georgia in 1974.






Total Rank Sum (TRS) - the sum total of a team’s ranks after successive evaluation rounds.

TRS is the basis for determining winners for both the qualifying problem and the state bowl. Although raw scores are used to assign ranks within an individual evaluator set of booklets, it is rank itself that decides the ultimate victor.

••••LINKS:

Rank/Rankings

Raw Score





Training Booklet - the self-directive booklet template created by Future Problem Solving of Virginia designed to train novice students to independently produce a practice problem 1 entry.

Training booklet templates contain specific instructions and helpful hints. Using the booklet may assist FPSers new to the process internalize skills and habits such as time management and attention to mandated requirements.

Use of the template may assist experienced teams in reviewing and reclaiming skills weakened by the summer break. Veteran teams are permitted to use and submit the training booklet template for the first practice problem, at their discretion.

Training booklets may only be used for practice problem 1 entries.

The template is an exclusive feature of Future Problem Solving of Virginia.

••••LINKS:

Booklet

Download Training Template


U


Underlying Problem - the formal description of the challenge a team or Individual competitor has chosen to solve. Selection of the underlying problem is the second step in the six-step Future Problem Solving process.

There are five required elements for a complete underlying problem:

• condition phrase (conditions in the future scene that prompted the
• selection of the challenge being converting into an underlying problem)
• stem (“How might we” or “In what ways might we”)
• key verb phrase (a phrase that describes what is to be accomplished)
• purpose (why the team or individual competitor wants to do what is set out in the key verb phrase)
• future scene parameters (place, time, topic)

The Underlying Problem is considered the most critical step in the Future Problem Solving process because it sets the course for each step that follows.

Underlying Problems are evaluated on three criteria:

• presence and completeness of a condition phrase (0-2 points)
• presence and completeness of a stem and key verb phrase (0-3 points)
• presence and completeness of a purpose (0-3 points)
• presence of future scene parameters (0-2 points)
• focus - degree to which the underlying problem is clearly stated and satisfactorily addresses the future scene's charge (1-10 points)
• adequacy/importance of the underlying problem - identifies a major important issue from the future scene(1-10 points)

••••LINKS:

Condition Phrase

Future Scene Parameters

Key Verb Phrase

Purpose

Stem

Underlying Problem
 


V


vafps.org - the official website of Future Problem Solving of Virginia.

The site provides information, news, and online services for coaches, participants, and others interested in FPS in the state.

Dan Baise currently coordinates the website.


••••LINK:

vafps.org website


W


Warm-up Fuzzy - an unofficial future scene meant for use in training and practice.

Future Problem Solving of Virginia occasionally posts warm-up fuzzies on the program website.

Only future scenes mailed from the state office may be used for practice problems 1 and 2, and the qualifying problem. Official future scenes are never posted online.

••••LINK:

Future Scene





Why (W) for the Challenge - the evaluation rating of a challenge that does not relate to the future scene.

A challenge must be considered relevant to receive points on the step 1 fluency scale.

A challenge receiving a (W) cannot receive points for fluency, elaboration, flexibility or be considered for an originality bonus.

••••LINKS:

Challenge

Elaboration

Flexibility

Fluency

Future Scene

Originality Bonus





Why (W) for the Solution Idea - the evaluation rating of a solution idea that does not relate to the underlying problem.

A solution idea must be considered relevant to receive points on the step 3 fluency scale.

A solution idea receiving a (W) cannot receive points for fluency, elaboration, flexibility or be considered for an originality bonus.

••••LINK:

Elaboration

Flexibility

Fluency

Originality Bonus

Solution Idea

Underlying Problem





Workshop - A training session provided by Future Problem Solving of Virginia for coaches, potential coaches, evaluators, and potential evaluators.

Workshops are generally conducted for all programs in late summer.

The program website, vafps.org, provides information about each workshop as well as online registration.

••••LINK:

Coach

Evaluator

Registration





Wythe Award - an award given annually to the outstanding team member in each grade level of Future Problem Solving of Virginia.

Nominations must come from a fellow teammate and carry the endorsement of the nominee's coach.

The awards are presented each year at the state bowl.

The award is named for George Wythe, a prominent Virginian of the Revolutionary period who inspired others with his intellect and keen sense of honesty and honor.

••••LINKS:

George Wythe Wikipedia article

State Bowl


Y



Yes (Y) - The evaluation of a challenge considered to have a chance of existing or occurring.

A challenge must receive a yes score to be factored into the formula for assigning points to the challenge fluency scale.

Challenges receiving any evaluation other than yes (perhaps, why, or duplicate) cannot receive points for elaboration, flexibility, or an originality bonus.

••••LINKS:

Challenge

Elaboration

Flexibility

Fluency