Future Problem Solving of Virginia
Glossary A - I

A


Action-based Problem Solving (AbPS)
- the non-competitive component of Future Problem Solving designed for use in the regular classroom.

AbPS participants are introduced to the skills of creative problem solving in a hands-on, non-threatening manner by working on two topics, one per semester.

Rose Browning coordinates Action-Based Problem Solving in Virginia.

••••LINK:

Creative Problem Solving





Action Plan
- the explanation of how a team or individual's best solution will be implemented. It is the sixth and final step of the Future Problem Solving process.

The Action Plan should be persuasive as well as informative. Participants should strive to "sell" their best solution as they describe how it will be carried out.

The written action plan is the basis for the performance teams stage in the Presentation of the Action Plan competition at the State Bowl and the International Conference.

Evaluation of the Action Plan is based on the following criteria:

• relevance to the Underlying Problem (1-5 points)

• effectiveness in solving the Underlying Problem (1-5 points)

• impact on the Future Scene (1-5 points)

• humaneness - positive potential of the plan (1-5 points)

• development of the Action Plan (1-10 points)

••••LINKS:

Development of the Action Plan

Effectiveness

Evaluation Scale

Humaneness

Impact

International Conference

Presentation of the Action Plan

Relevance

State Bowl





Adequacy/Importance of the Underlying Problem - The maximum score is granted to an underlying problem that identifies a major, important issue from the Future Scene.

Low scores are assigned to underlying problems that restate, broaden, or ignore the Future Scene, are not connected to the key verb phrase or contain a purpose that repeats the key verb phrase or condition phrase.

The scale for adequacy/importance ranges from 1 - 10 points.

••••LINKS:

Condition Phrase

Future Scene

Global Issues Problem Solving

Key Verb Phrase

Scoresheet

Underlying Problem





Adult Division
- the competitive division of Global Issues Problem Solving for teams beyond grades 4-12. 
Adult teams can be made up of groups with shared attributes, such as students from the same college campus or ad hoc groupings of adults with nothing in common other than an interest in problem solving.

••••LINKS:

Global Issues Problem Solving

Grade Level Division





Advanced Criteria - criteria specifically targeted to the core idea of the key verb phrase and the purpose of the underlying problem. Advanced criteria are scored under the relevance to the Underlying Problem category in steps 4-5 of the Global Issues Problem Solving scoresheet.

Since advanced criteria are more highly focused than
generic and modified criteria, they earn the best scores.

Each criterion considered advanced receives 3 points.

••••LINKS:

Evaluation Scale

Generic Criteria

Global Issues Problem Solving

Key Verb Phrase

Modified Criteria

Purpose

Scoresheet

Relevance to the Underlying Problem





Affiliate - a state or national program responsible for all Future Problem Solving programs in an assigned geographical region.

Future Problem Solving of Virginia is the FPS affiliate in the commonwealth of Virginia.

••••LINK:

Future Problem Solving of Virginia

 

 

 

Affiliates Council - the governing board of Future Problem Solving Program International.

The affiliates council is made up of affiliate director from each FPSPI affiliated program. Patty Haskins is Virginia’s representative on the council.

••••LINK:

Future Problem Solving Program International

 

 

 

Affiliate Director - the administrative director of a Future Problem Solving Program International state or national program.

Patty Haskins (officially the state director) is the affiliate director in Virginia.

••••LINKS:

Future Problem Solving Program International

State Director





At-large Bid - an invitation to the state bowl extended after district bids are awarded.

Unlike district bids, which are allocated according to the number of registered teams per grade level division within each school division, at-large bids are determined by rank scores regardless of district.

At-large apportionment for each grade level is determined before evaluation of the qualifying problem begins. The allocation for each district is posted on the state program's website (vafps.org).

••••LINKS:

District

District bid

Qualifying Problem

Rank

vafps.org

 

B

 

Bid - an invitation to the state bowl.

Bids are based on qualifying problem performance and distributed according to a formula specified in each years rules of the competition. (See district bids, at-large bids, and host bids.)


••••LINKS:

At-large Bid

District Bid

Host Bid





Board of Trustees - the Future Problem Solving Program International body that provides expertise in various components of the business and operation structure of the program.

Members of the board of trustees include affiliate directors and outside experts in fields such as policy, finance, accounting, and non-profit law.


••••LINKS:

Affiliate Director

Future Problem Solving Program International





Booklet - the official written entry of the six-step Global Issues Problem Solving competition.

The booklet is essentially composed of empty cells in which participants record their ideas.

GIPS competitors must use an official booklet template posted on the vafps.org website.

The booklet template for FPSers participating as Individuals contains the reduced set of cells that conform to the requirements of the Individual competition.

Virginia competitors may use the optional training booklet for the first practice problem, but for no other problem round.

••••LINKS:

Official Team Booklet Template (download)

Official Booklet Template for FPSers Participating as Individuals (download)

Training Booklet Template (download)

Practice Problem 1

Practice Problem 2

Global Issues Problem Solving

Training Booklet





Booklet Submission
- the process for submitting booklets to the state Future Problem Solving office for evaluation.

For practice problems, cover sheets issued by VAFPS provide coaches with instructions for submitting booklets, including deadlines.

For qualifying problem submissions, coaches are required to make two copies of each booklet and cover sheet. The first copy should be mailed along with the original booklet and cover sheet to the VAFPS Evaluation Director on or before the postmark deadline date. Submissions should be posted by first class mail, never by certified mail. The second copy should be safely stored with the coach since original booklets will not be returned.

Participants' names must be printed clearly on the cover sheet. After the Qualifying Problem evaluation has been completed, names on the cover sheet will be used to publish state bowl invitations on the program's website and to prepare materials for the bowl. Spelling errors may occur if names are hard to read.

All work must be hand-written on an official blank FPS booklet.

No work should be done on the back of pages. Additional blank pages may be added if needed. Work submitted on the back of pages will not be evaluated.

Make sure copies are clear and legible. Evaluators may not be able to adequately score work from poorly made copies.

••••LINKS:

Coach

Cover Sheet

Evaluation Director

Evaluator

Instructions for Submitting Booklets

Postmark Deadline

Qualifying Problem





Brainstorming - a method for generating ideas for the purpose of enhancing divergent thinking.

Future Problem Solving teams generally use brainstorming techniques in steps 1 (challenges), step 3 (solutions) and step 4 (criteria). The method is also used in sub-steps such as selection of an underlying problem and details of the action plan.

There are four basic "rules" for brainstorming:

• Focus on quantity over quality

• Never criticize the ideas of others (defer judgements until after the brainstorming session)

• Come up with wild ideas ("freewheel")

• Combine and improve ideas from others ("piggyback")

Brainstorming was
originally developed by Alex Osborn in 1939 as a creative problem solving strategy. Creative Problem Solving is a forerunner of Future Problem Solving and one of the three primary components of the program as conceived by E. Paul Torrance

••••LINKS:

Challenges
Creative Problem Solving
Criteria
Divergent thinking
Future Problem Solving
Alex Osborn

E. Paul Torrance

Solution Ideas


C


Calendar - the schedule of events and deadlines for Future Problem Solving of Virginia.

The calendar for each year is posted in August on vafps.org.

Sometimes, depending upon circumstances, deadlines may be extended or events postponed or rescheduled.

••••LINK:

2018-19 Calendar





Categories
- the list of classification themes or subject areas used to evaluate the flexibility of challenges and solutions in FPS booklets.

The following items are included on the category list:

Arts & Aesthetic
Basic Needs
Business & Commerce
Communication
Defense
Economics
Education
Environment
Ethics & Religion
Government & Politics
Law & Justice
Miscellaneous
Physical Health
Psychological Health
Recreation
Social Relationships
Technology
Transportation

A challenge or solution may be found to contain more than one category and count toward the total flexibility score.

Categories are determined by evaluators, not the writers who prepared the booklet.

Evaluators may create categories of their own if they believe the future scene justifies the addition.

••••LINKS:

Challenges

Evaluators

Flexibility

Solution Ideas





Challenges - potential problems or constructive possibilities that appear to occur in future scenes. Identification of challenges is the first formal step in the six-step Future Problem Solving process.

Challenges must be posed in terms of possibilities (may, might, could) because they predict potential consequences rather than report on current conditions. Simply repeating a problematic situation from a future scene does not constitute a challenge. Situations appearing in a future scene can only suggest future actions or conditions which can be molded into challenges.

There are three parts to a complete challenge:

• a link to the future scene (how the challenge logically relates to the future scene)

• the challenge itself

• why the challenge is a challenge.

Challenges are evaluated on three criteria:

• fluency - problems or opportunities that are likely to exist or occur (1-10 points)

• flexibility - the number of categories used (0-10 points)

• clarity - the quality of the written expression (0-10 points).

Teams may submit up to 16 challenges for each problem solving round with the exception of Practice Problem 1 which calls for eight challenges.

Participants competing as Individual may submit no more than eight challenges.

Participants can earn three extra originality bonus points for a challenge that an evaluator considers rare and insightful. Rare, in the future problem solving context, means that the challenge does not appear in any other booklet within the set a particular evaluator is reviewing. To receive an originality bonus, the challenge must be both rare and insightful in the evaluators judgement.

••••
LINKS:

Evaluation Scale

Evaluator


Clarity

Flexibility

Fluency

Future Scene

Individual

Insightful

Link

Originality Bonus

Rare





Clarity - the evaluation scale used to measure how well challenges identify concerns and relate to the future scene.

Booklets with clear details and logical cause and effect relationships receive the highest scores.

The scale for clarity phrase ranges from 1-10 points.

••••LINKS:

Challenges

Evaluation Scale





Coach
- the trainer and instructional leader of a Future Problem Solving team or participant competing as an Individual.

Each competitive team or Individual, with the exception of teams in the Global Issues Problem Solving adult division, must have a designated coach. The coach is responsible for the administration of the program and serves as the intermediary between the team and Future Problem Solving of Virginia.

••••LINKS:

Adult Division

Future Problem Solving of Virginia

Individual





Community Problem Solving (CmPS) - the competitive program of Future Problem Solving that allows participants to use the six-step FPS process to solve authentic, real world problems of their own choosing.

CmPS projects stem from self-identified concerns existing within a school, local community, region, state, or nation.

CmPS projects may be addressed by either teams or Individuals.

Each team or Individual participant competes in a grade level division established by Future Problem Solving (junior 4-6, middle 7-9, and senior 10-12).

Anne Evans coordinates Community Problem Solving in Virginia.

••••LINKS:

Individual


Junior Division


Middle Division


Senior Division





Condition Phrase - a brief explanation of the condition or conditions in the future scene that prompted selection of the underlying problem.

Each underlying problem must include a condition phrase containing accurate information to receive full credit on the condition phrase scale on the evaluation form.

Condition phrases are ideally short and may contain actual quotes from the future scene. They may be a simple phrase attached to the Underlying Problem question, or a sentence separate from the Underlying Problem question.

The scale for step 2 condition phrase ranges from 0-2 points.

••••LINKS:

Evaluation Scale

Future Scene

Underlying Problem





Convergent Thinking - the systematic and logical process of determining the quality of options based on predetermined criteria.

Convergent thinking is best understood when compared with divergent thinking in that convergent thinking depends heavily on analysis and measured judgement while divergent thinking is more spontaneous and free-flowing.

The Future Problem Solving process employs both divergent and convergent procedures for reaching the best solution for the given situation in the future scene. Generally, divergent thinking precedes convergent thinking.

Step 2 (underlying problem), step 5 (grid evaluation) are considered convergent, but some steps, such as step 2 (underlying problem) and step 6 (action plan) contain elements of both divergent and convergent thinking.

••••LINKS:

Action Plan

Divergent thinking

Grid

Future Problem Solving

Underlying Problem





Correctly Written (criteria) - the scale used to evaluate the accuracy of each identified criterion in step four of a Global Issues Problem Solving booklet.

Correctly written criteria use a single dimension in the desired direction (best not worst; fastest not slowest in most contexts) and contain a superlative.

The scale for correctly written criteria ranges from 1-5 points.


••••LINKS:

Criteria

evaluation scale

superlative





Correctly Used (criteria) - the evaluation scale used to measure the accuracy of addition on the evaluation grid.

The scale for correctly written criteria ranges from 1-5 points.

••••LINKS:

Criteria

Evaluation scale

Grid





Cover Sheet - the official form that identifies the team or Individual competing in Future Problem Solving.

Each Global Issues Problem Solving booklet must include a fully completed cover sheet.

Cover sheets for the two practice problems are delivered with the registration packet issued by Future Problem Solving of Virginia. Qualifying problem cover sheets are mailed separately before the competition.

Qualifying problem cover sheets require the signatures of participants and coaches attesting to adherence to the rules of the competition.

Cover sheets provide important information, such as the postmark deadline and procedures for mailing the booklet to the state evaluation director.

••••LINKS:

Booklet

Evaluation Director

Future Problem Solving of Virginia

Global Issues Problem Solving

Individual

Postmark Deadline

Qualifying Problem

Rules of the Competition





Creative - a solution considered especially inventive or ingenious by a Future Problem Solving of Virginia evaluator.

Solutions considered creative and rare are rewarded with a 3-point originality bonus on top of other points earned for the item.

••••LINKS:

Evaluator

Originality Bonus

Rare





Creative Problem Solving - the model for the problem solving component of the Future Problem Solving Program.

Alex Osborn originated Creative Problem Solving in 1954 and further developed the multi-step model in partnership with Sidney Parnes. E. Paul Torrance adapted the process into the Olympic-style competition that became Future Problem Solving.

••••LINKS:

E. Paul Torrance

Future Problem Solving





Creative Strength (of overall booklet) - the evaluation scale used to measure the originality and productive thinking of the overall booklet.

The most creative efforts display inventive and ingenious ideas throughout the booklet.

The scale for creative strength ranges from 1-10 points.

••••LINK:

Evaluation Scale





Criteria - the five standards used to measure the relative effectiveness of solutions. Identification of criteria is the fourth step in the six-step Future Problem Solving process.

Each criterion must isolate one and only one issue.

Each criterion must contain a superlative (least, most, greatest, etc.).

Each criterion must indicate a desired direction (highest or lowest, best or worst, etc.).

Criteria are generally phrased as questions (for example, Which solution is...), but may be acceptable in another form if the criterion is complete and clear.

Criteria are evaluated on the following two scales:

••• correctly written - single dimension, superlative, desired direction (1-5 points)

••
• applicability and relevance - degree to which the criteria targets the core idea of the key verb phrase and the purpose of the underlying problem (1-15 points).

Each criterion is scored on a three-point scale:

••• generic - idea can be applied to nearly every underlying problem for nearly every topic (1 point)

••• modified - adequate detail to place it firmly within the identified underlying problem and/or the future scene of the topic under investigation (2 points)

••• advanced - specifically targeted to the core idea of the key verb 
 phrase and the purpose of the underlying problem (3 points)

••••LINKS:

Advanced Criteria

Applicability and Relevance

Correctly Written

Future Scene

Generic Criteria

Modified Criteria

Evaluation Scale

Superlative

Topic

Underlying Problem


D


Deadline (see Postmark Deadline)





Development of the Action Plan - the evaluation scale that measures the degree to which the action plan is explained.

High scoring action plan developments are well elaborated and provide more detail than basic who, what, where, when, how, and why elements.

The scale for development of the action plan ranges from 1-10 points.

••••LINK:

Evaluation scale





District - the school division in which a team or Individual competes in Future Problem Solving.

Independent teams and Individuals must compete in the school district of the coach's residence.

••••LINK:

Independent





District Bid - a state bowl invitation which is automatically extended to the highest-ranking team(s) in each school division.

The number of district bids allocated to a school district is based on the number of teams participating at each grade level in that division in the yearlong program.

District bids apportionment for each grade level is determined before evaluation of the qualifying problem begins. The allocation for each district is posted on the state program's website (
vafps.org).

••••LINKS:

qualifying problem

vafps.org





Divergent Thinking - the open-ended and creative process of exploring ideas and possible solutions to solve a problem.

Divergent thinking is best understood when compared with divergent thinking in that convergent thinking depends heavily on analysis and measured judgement while divergent thinking is more spontaneous and free-flowing.

Brainstorming is a divergent thinking strategy.

The Future Problem Solving process employs both divergent and convergent procedures for reaching the best solution for the given situation in the future scene. Generally, divergent thinking precedes convergent thinking.

Step 1 (challenges), step 3 (solution ideas) and step 4 (criteria) are considered divergent steps, but some steps, such as steps 2 (underlying problem) and step 6 (action plan) contain elements of both divergent and convergent thinking.

••••LINKS:

Brainstorming

Challenges

Criteria

Divergent

Future Problem Solving

Future Scene

Grid

Solution Ideas

Underlying Problem





Duplicate (challenges and solutions) - replication of the basic idea of a challenge or solution idea.

A duplicate in Future Problem Solving does not mean that the challenge or solution idea is necessarily identical to another item. It only means that it is too similar in context to represent a distinct idea.

Challenges and solution ideas scored as duplicates do not receive credit toward fluency points and cannot be scored for elaboration or flexibility (categories).

••••LINKS:

Categories

Challenge

Elaboration

Flexibility

Fluency

Solution Idea


E


Effectiveness (of Action Plan) - the evaluation scale that measures the action plan's potential to successfully solve the underlying problem.

The scale for effectiveness of the action plan ranges from 1-5 points.

••••LINKS:

Action Plan

Evaluation Scale

Underlying Problem





Elaboration - the evaluation scale used to measure the addition of significant information to step 2 Solution Ideas beyond basic explanation.

Participants can add points to their scores by including any three of the "who," "what," "why," and "how" elements to each solution idea.

Identification of "when" and "where" elements do not normally count toward elaboration points because they have been previously identified in step 2 (underlying problem) parameters. However, location and time elements can be included for elaboration if they are substantial in nature. For example, if the "where" is a specific place that the solution will take place and not the simply the information tacked on from the future scene or underlying problem, it may be considered for elaboration.

The scale for elaboration ranges from 1-10 points.

••••LINKS:

Evaluation Scale

Parameters





Evaluation Scale - the range of possible scores for each step, based on the scoring guidelines of the evaluation scoresheet.

Evaluation scales provide a numeric range for totaling scores or a rubric to measure overall quality.

••••LINKS:

Scoring Guidelines

Scoresheet





Evaluator - a Virginia Future Problem Solving official who assesses and scores the quality of entries submitted for various components of the Future Problem Solving program.

Each component (GIPS, CmPS, Scenario Writing, Scenario Performance, and AbPS) is served by a separate set of evaluators.

All evaluators in Virginia must be certified by the evaluation director after participating in extensive training.

••••LINKS:

Action-based Problem Solving

Community Problem Solving

Evaluation Director

Global Issues Problem Solving

Scenario Performance

Scenario Writing



Evaluation Criteria (see criteria)



Evaluation Director
- the Future Problem Solving of Virginia executive who oversee the evaluation of all competitive Global Issues Problem Solving programs and non-competitive practice problems in Virginia.

Patty Haskins directs evaluation in Virginia.

••••LINK:

Future Problem Solving of Virginia





Executive Board - the governing body of Future Problem Solving of Virginia.

Each member of the executive board supervises and coordinates a program or service provided by the program. There are currently six members of the board:

Patty Haskins - State Director and Evaluation Director

Rose Browning - Action-based Problem Solving Coordinator

Katie Connor - Scenario Performance Coordinator

Anne Evans - Community Problem Solving Coordinator

Joanne Stanley - Scenario Writing Coordinator

Patti Rabil - State Bowl Coordinator.

••••LINKS:

Action-based Problem Solving

Community Problem Solving

Evaluation Director

Global Issues Problem Solving

Scenario Performance

Scenario Writing

State Bowl


F


Fact Sheet - a one-page guide for each step in the Future Problem Solving process.

Fact sheets were developed by Future Problem Solving of Virginia and can be downloaded from the resources page of the website (
vafps.org).

A single sheet quick reference guide, which consolidates critical information from the fact sheets, is also available for download.

••••LINKS:

Quick Reference Guide (download)

Step 1 (Challenges) fact sheet (download)

Step 2 (Underlying Problem) fact sheet (download)

Step 3 (Solution Ideas) fact sheet (download)

Step 4-5 (Criteria) fact sheet (download)

Step 6 (Action Plan) fact sheet (download)

vafps.org





Flexibility - the evaluation scale used to measure the number of challenges and solution ideas from different categories.

Flexibility scores are computed by counting the number of categories employed from the category list that have received Y (yes) scores on challenges and R (relevant) scores on solutions. (See the category list.)

Flexibility is an important goal of creative thinkers. Highly flexible problem solvers can think broadly and approach situations and issues from different perspectives.

The scale for flexibility ranges from 1-10 points.

••••LINKS:

Challenges

Relevant (R) Challenge and Solution Ideas scores

Solution Ideas

Yes (Y) Challenge and Solution Ideas scores





Fluency - the evaluation scale which measures the number of ideas that identify a logical challenge or "solve" the underlying problem.

FPS participants are evaluated on fluency in steps 1 (Challenges) and step 3 (Solution Ideas). Fluency scores are computed by counting the number of Y (yes) scores on challenges and R (relevant) scores on solution ideas.

The quality of fluency is an important goal for creative thinkers because fluent problem solvers can generate numerous solutions to a wide variety of issues and problems.

The scale for fluency ranges from 1-10 points.

••••LINKS:

Categories

Challenges

Relevant (R) Challenge and Solution Ideas score

Solution Ideas

Yes (Y) Challenge and Solution Ideas scores
 

 

 

Focus (of the Underlying Problem) - the evaluation scale that measures the quality of the underlying problem in terms of clarity of written expression and how well it addresses the future scene's charge.

The scale for focus ranges from 1-10 points.

••••LINK:

Underlying Problem





FPSPI Association - a Future Problem Solving Program International organization that promotes collaboration among individuals in affiliate programs and others interested in the Creative Problem Solving process.

Subscribers receive guidelines and documents for all FPS components, supplemental materials, details for accessing other members of the association, and additional information throughout the year.

Membership may be purchased online at (link).

••••LINKS:

Creative Problem Solving

Future Problem Solving Program International





FPSP Mart - the online store for purchasing Future Problem Solving support materials.

The Mart is operated by Future Problem Solving Program International.

Since FPS affiliates do not sell instructional products, essential materials such as Readings, Research, and Resources must be secured from the Mart's website (
http://www.fpspimart.org).

••••LINK:

Future Problem Solving Program International





Future Problem Solving - a multi-step process created by E. Paul Torrance to promote critical thinking and problem solving.

Torrance combined three elements to develop the program:

• An interdisciplinary study of the future,

• a modification of the Creative Problem Solving process, and

• an Olympic-style elimination tournament.

The first competition was held in 1974 with gifted students from Athens, Georgia. Today, the method forms the core process of Future Problem Solving Program International and is implemented worldwide.

••••LINKS:

Creative Problem Solving

E. Paul Torrance





Future Problem Solving Program International (FPSPI) - the international organization responsible for the structure and operation of Future Problem Solving programs throughout the world.

The stated mission of FPSPI is "to develop the ability of young people globally to design and achieve positive futures through problem solving using critical and creative thinking."

Although each affiliate is autonomous, the international program oversees and guides the overall direction of Future Problem Solving.

FPSPI produces and markets instructional materials and stages the annual International Conference, the final event of the year-long competition.

The international office is located in Melbourne, Florida.

••••LINKS:

Future Problem Solving

FPSP Mart

International Conference





Future Problem Solving of Virginia (VAFPS) - the Future Problem Solving Program International affiliate for teams and Individuals competing in the commonwealth of Virginia.

VAFPS began in 1991. The first state bowl held in Williamsburg.

The program is administered by an executive board with headquarters in Midlothian. The state director, Patty Haskins, is the chief operations officer and represents Virginia on the FPSPI’s affiliates council.

••••LINKS:

Future Problem Solving Program International

vafps.org





Future Scene - the document that describes the situation Future Problem Solvers are expected to solve in Global Issue Problem Solving competitions.

Future scenes are generally one page in length and set about 30 years in the future.

Challenges may originate from information anywhere in the future scene, but the underlying problem must conform to the restrictions set forth in the future scene charge.

Two future scenes are provided for each problem: a junior division version for grades 4-6 and a more detailed version for grades 7-12 and adult participants. Future Problem Solvers in the northern hemisphere use the same future scenes in the same order. Because of reversed seasons of the southern hemisphere, some shifting of the order of future scenes occurs.

Future scenes may be viewed in advance for practice problems 1 and 2 at the discretion of coaches. However, from the qualifying problem to the International Conference, future scenes must be secured and kept from view until the closely-timed competitions begins.

No participant or coach may post any future scene on social media or websites within three years of the competition and not without the express permission of the state director of Future Problem Solving of Virginia.

••••LINKS:

Future Scene Charge

Global Issues Problem Solving

International Conference

Junior Division

Middle Division

Practice Problem 1

Practice Problem 2

Qualifying Problem

Senior Division

State Bowl





Future Scene Charge - the specific instruction to Global Issues Problem Solving booklet writers indicating the focus area or areas of the future scene that must be addressed in their selection of an underlying problem.

Future scene charges set limits for what can and cannot be selected as a concern for the underlying problem.

Charges may be narrow, broad or in between. Narrow charges restrict the use of minor or major themes from the future scene in the development of an underlying problem. Broad charges, by definition, allow participants to take most of the future scene's content into account when establishing an underlying problem.

Future scene charges generally appear at or near the end of the future scene. Exceptions to this practice may occasionally occur.

The charge only impacts the construction of the underlying problem. It does not restrict identification of challenges. Challenges may deal with any aspects of future scene.

Many teams and individuals highlight the future scene charge and keep it prominently in view as they explore selection of an underlying problem.

••••LINKS:

Challenges

Global Issues Problem Solving

Underlying Problem





Future scene parameters - the three specific conditions that define the setting of the underlying problem: place, time, and topic.

Parameters must conform to information provided in the Future Scene.

The presence of parameters is measured in the underlying problem section of the scoresheet.

The scale for future scene parameters ranges from 0-2 points.

••••
LINKS:

Future Scene

Underlying Problem





Futuristic Thinking - the evaluation scale that measures how well futuristic concepts are developed throughout the booklet and how those ideas impact future societies.

The futuristic thinking scale is recorded in the overall scoring section of the scoresheet and ranges from 1-10 points.

••••LINKS:

Overall scoring

Scoresheet





Fuzzy - a nickname sometimes used for the future scene.

The term "fuzzy" was commonly used when the future scene was called the fuzzy situation. The name is an artifact of an earlier time; all official materials now use the term future scene.

••••LINK:

Future Scene


G


Generic Criteria - criteria whose core idea is so common it can be applied to nearly every underlying problem for nearly every topic.

Generic criteria are scored under the applicability and relevance category on the Global Issues Problem Solving scoresheet.

Because generic criteria lack focus, they are scored lower than modified and advanced criteria (1 per criterion).

••••LINKS:

Advanced Criteria

Applicability and Relevance

Modified Criteria

Topic

Underlying Problem





Global Issues Problem Solving (GIPS) - The basic problem solving model for the Future Problem Solving Program.

Although GIPS has been modified and refined over the years, it is the original Future Problem Solving program.

The six-step process was developed by E. Paul Torrance in 1974.

The six steps of the GIPS process are:

• identification of challenges related to the topic or Future Scene

• selection of an Underlying Problem

• generation of solution ideas to the Underlying Problem

• generation of criteria to evaluate solution ideas

• evaluation of solution ideas

• development of an Action Plan

New global Issues topics are announced each spring prior to the competitive year.

Community Problem Solvers are required to use the GIPS structure for their projects, and Scenario Writers and Performers must use GIPS topics in the creation of their entries.

Each team or individual participant competes in a grade level division established by Future Problem Solving (junior 4-6, middle 7-9, and senior 10-12).

••••LINKS:

Action Plan

Challenges

Community Problem Solving

Criteria

E. Paul Torrance

Grade Level Division

Scenario Performance

Scenario Writing

Solution Ideas

Topic

Underlying Problem





Grade Level Division - the three division of the Future Problem Solving competition organized by the participant's current grade level.

The three grade levels are
• junior (grades 4-6)
• middle (grades 7-9)
• senior (grades 10-12)

The grade level of a team is determined by the participant in the highest grade level. (For example, if three students are in the 6th grade, but the fourth student is a 7th grader, the team must participate in the middle division.

Grade level divisions are used in all Future Problem Solving of Virginia programs except Action-based Problem Solving. Adult teams participate independently from grade level divisions.

••••LINKS:

Adult Division

Junior Division

Middle Division

Senior Division





Grid/evaluation of solution ideas - the evaluation instrument used to compare the quality of solutions for each identified criterion. Evaluation of solution ideas is the fifth step in the six-step Future Problem Solving process.

A blank grid is provided in each global issues problem solving booklet.

Only the eight best solutions are placed on the grid. Solutions should be entered with a brief description to jog the memory.

If the grid produces a tie, the team or Individual producing the booklet must break the tie and explain their method for resolving the issue. The most common procedure is to double the most important criteria score. The best solution cannot combine two solution ideas.

It is advisable to allow the grid to reveal the best solution without "rigging" the evaluation to favor a particular solution. If criteria are well identified, the best alternative should naturally rise to the top.

It is important to carefully tabulate numbers on the grid since addition errors may produce incorrect results and a lower score.

"Correctly used," which measures the accuracy of the grid, is the only criterion for evaluating the quality of solution ideas.


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Booklet